South African Art


Art is the expression of the unspeakable or inexplicable. It allows greater freedom of speech as many of the arguments raised or points made are done through interpretation, rather than straightforward statements. This was an especially vital means of expression for a politically volatile area like South Africa.

Image of Antelope and human figures painted by Bushmen on the rock wall of a cave in the Cederberg mountains, South Africa,at least 1,500 years ago.
Antelope and human figures painted by Bushmen on the rock wall of a cave in the Cederberg mountains, South Africa,at least 1,500 years ago.

Earliest art in this country was, like many other regions, defined by the rock art that existed in South Africa, at least 1,500 years ago mountain ranges like the Drakensberg, Cederberg and Magaliesberg. These pieces revealed much about the lives and customs of the local tribes. They also advanced over time, becoming more complex, using colours (from plants and other rocks) and etchings to create a more visually appealing experience. At this time, art was not only for aesthetic purposes, but also for religious worship and healing rituals. Naturally occurring clay was used to sculpt 3-dimensional figures. Remnants of such ceramic art have been dated back to about the 6th century of our Common Era (CE).

During the 17th to 19th centuries, South Africa was being colonised by the Dutch, French and English, These ones were going through their own art movements, not least of all the French Renaissance. As they settled and interacted with the native South Africans, they introduced these ones to a more classic style of realism, as opposed to their cultural, often abstract, approach to art. However, while the colonialists tried to anglicise the Africans, they themselves were being influenced by the local tribes. Gradually, even the European art began to explore the African approach of using clays and rock, wood and beads, depicting human and animal forms out of proportion, and including a somewhat spiritual element to art pieces (e.g. wooden African masks, etc…).

During the 1900’s, the Apartheid regime came into power. This was an oppressive form of rulership, denying non-white South Africans many of the basic rights that human beings enjoy today. This was executed in a ruthless and often violent way. Such oppression evoked an anger and sadness in many of the local artists. But, it also forced them to examine what made a human being just that, what dynamics existed between races and languages, and why certain societies were able to gain dominance over others, however unjustly. The art of this era either began to be used to make strong political statements, or to distract its viewers from the turmoil surrounding them. By transporting art enthusiasts to another world, a surreal or fantasy one, artists attempted to change their perspective, if just for a while, and remind them of the natural and physical beauty of this world.

South African art remains as diverse, complicated and exquisite as the nation it represents.

 

Effects Of Climatic And Environmental Changes On Ancient African Civilisations


Hundreds of thousands of years ago, the entire planet earth looked very different to what modern man experiences today. Continents were not yet divided, and the vegetation and animals were different. Significantly, the climate was also vastly different to what it is today. Climate plays an integral role in determining the plants and animal that live in a certain areas, as well as how habitable a place is for human beings.

In fact, even the theory of the evolution of man was dependent largely on the climatic influences on our ancient ancestors. It is hypothesised that the ancient versions of man were forced to walk upright, lose body hair and develop their coordination for survival in a changing environment. New skills also needed to be learned as farming techniques and living habits had to be adapted.

Ancient Africa experienced major vacillations between mega-droughts and Ice Ages, although these fluctuations occurred over thousands and thousands of years. As humans continued to develop and evolve through these phases, they needed to make major adaptations, not only to their ways of life, but also to their personal body structure. Prior to 135 000 years ago, the whole of Africa was lush and fertile, with a tropical climate. Then, the most intense mega-drought ever to occur hit the continent in the period referred to as the early part of the Late Pleistocene epoch. This is believed to have led to the migration of most of our human ancestors into other areas that were more habitable and fertile. Lake Malawi has been used by scientists as a rain gauge to ascertain water levels in ancient times. Research has shown that, during this mega-drought, the lake’s level dropped at least 1968 feet, or 600 metres! Evolutionists claim that this severe lack of water not only pushed ancient man from the area, it also forced aquatic animals (such as fish) to develop the facilities to be able to survive on dry land, thus evolving into land animals.

As people flocked out of the continent, only a very small proportion of this specific generation remained. Humankind as we know it is widely believed to have come from these few remaining on the continent, who evolved significantly and in response to the climatic changes.

These conditions continued until about 70 000 years ago, when the climate was again characterised by wetter conditions. These led to the growth and renewal of fresh vegetation, as well as an increased water supply to the region. More people were in the area during this time of abundance, and the population grew. This increase in numbers eventually led to migrations due to space limitations and the ownership of land.

Then, about 20 000 years ago, an Ice Age overcame the entire earth. This meant that the planet underwent a long-term period of cold temperatures over most of its surface. In places like North America and Eurasia, giant ice sheets covered enormous proportions of the land, making it impossible to farm and, sometimes, even live in these areas. This final Ice Age lasted for about 9 500 years. It forced most of the populations to migrate to the highlands, where they would be relatively protected from the ice sheets. Again, these civilisations had to adapt their farming methods, and change their diet, social habits, clothing and migratory patterns. This forced an evolution to a certain extent. Body hair was necessary to keep people warm, their skin lightened due to a lack of the harsh rays of the sun that they experienced during the mega-droughts, etc…

When this Ice Age came to an end 10 500 years ago, areas like the Sahara were left fertile and healthy. This made it and the other areas like it the ideal spots in which to settle as ancient man began to descend from the highlands. Animals and plants thrived in this environment, which made it very desirable in the eyes of mankind. The abundance of food, water and sunshine again changed the habits and physical structures of our earliest forefathers.

These conditions lasted for some time, but the Sahara in particular continued to experience fluctuations between humid and dry conditions. These eventually left the entire area unable to yield crops or sustain life for any extended period of time. Today, it remains a large stretch of desert. Then, approximately 2500 years ago, the group of people who had made their home in the Sahara began to follow the direction of the Nile River, which held promise of a rich water supply. The arid conditions of the Sahara and its surrounds continue to the present day.

Africa has, since prehistoric times, proven to be a place of fascination, life and evolution. Changes in the climate were often dramatic, and these were, to a great extent, responsible for determining the ancient civilisations that inhabited this vast continent. It is no wonder that many researchers and scientists maintain that Africa is the Cradle of Mankind, and research continues to yield fascinating evidence of this theory.