Migration Out Of Africa

 

According to the scientists who uphold the Recent Origin of Man Theory, some of the L3 haplogroup migrated from East Africa into the nearby East (Asia). This is believed to have occurred some 70 000 years ago. Because only the females of the L3 lineage are found anywhere outside of the African continent, it is believed that it was a very small population that actually participated in the migration. In fact, only about 150 humans, of the total population of up to 5000 in ancient Africa, are thought to have left Africa and moved to Asia.

Other researchers believe that there were two migrations at this time. One involved haplogroup M, who crossed the Red Sea (which was much shallower and narrower then) and followed the coast all the way to India. Evidence of this course is believed to have been lost when the sea levels rose during the Halocene era. The other group, haplogroup N, are believed to have followed the Nile River until they crossed Sinai into Asia. Some of the members of this haplogroup proceeded into Europe, while others stayed in various areas of Asia. One of the reasons for believing this is that haplogroup N is predominant in Europe, while the M group is completely absent there. Both are very rarely found in Africa. This may, however, also be due to genetic mutations.

 

Once these groups had spread into Asia, they continued to migrate to all corners of the earth. By 50 000 years ago, humans had moved into the southern areas of Asia. 10 000 years later, they had crossed the oceans and begun occupying Australia. It took another 10 000 years to inhabit East Asia. The Africans that had gone into India are still found in Pakistan and India. However, they have mutated to such an extent that this particular region experiences major diversity in this haplogroup, of which the Indian population makes up about 60%.

Some of those of the M haplogroup are Andamanese, having come from the Asian inhabitants of ancient times, according to some scholars. This proves that those migrants that took the coastal route to India proceeded right through to Thailand and on to Papua New Guinea along the shore. The dark skin colour of these modern men is one of the identifying traits that remain in the genetic codes of these humans from ancient times.

While those scientists that have researched and followed this theory present some solid evidence, there are many researchers who hold very different opinions. In their continued research, scientists and anthropologists try to weigh up the DNA evidence (of which there are limited resources) with fossilised findings of ancient man and his implements. Each puzzle piece is carefully considered and placed within a much larger picture in the ongoing attempt to piece together the complex mosaic that is the origin of humankind

Image of migration of early man over the world
Migration of early man over the world

For more information, please view: http://www.bradshawfoundation.com/journey/

Effects Of Climatic And Environmental Changes On Ancient African Civilisations


Hundreds of thousands of years ago, the entire planet earth looked very different to what modern man experiences today. Continents were not yet divided, and the vegetation and animals were different. Significantly, the climate was also vastly different to what it is today. Climate plays an integral role in determining the plants and animal that live in a certain areas, as well as how habitable a place is for human beings.

In fact, even the theory of the evolution of man was dependent largely on the climatic influences on our ancient ancestors. It is hypothesised that the ancient versions of man were forced to walk upright, lose body hair and develop their coordination for survival in a changing environment. New skills also needed to be learned as farming techniques and living habits had to be adapted.

Ancient Africa experienced major vacillations between mega-droughts and Ice Ages, although these fluctuations occurred over thousands and thousands of years. As humans continued to develop and evolve through these phases, they needed to make major adaptations, not only to their ways of life, but also to their personal body structure. Prior to 135 000 years ago, the whole of Africa was lush and fertile, with a tropical climate. Then, the most intense mega-drought ever to occur hit the continent in the period referred to as the early part of the Late Pleistocene epoch. This is believed to have led to the migration of most of our human ancestors into other areas that were more habitable and fertile. Lake Malawi has been used by scientists as a rain gauge to ascertain water levels in ancient times. Research has shown that, during this mega-drought, the lake’s level dropped at least 1968 feet, or 600 metres! Evolutionists claim that this severe lack of water not only pushed ancient man from the area, it also forced aquatic animals (such as fish) to develop the facilities to be able to survive on dry land, thus evolving into land animals.

As people flocked out of the continent, only a very small proportion of this specific generation remained. Humankind as we know it is widely believed to have come from these few remaining on the continent, who evolved significantly and in response to the climatic changes.

These conditions continued until about 70 000 years ago, when the climate was again characterised by wetter conditions. These led to the growth and renewal of fresh vegetation, as well as an increased water supply to the region. More people were in the area during this time of abundance, and the population grew. This increase in numbers eventually led to migrations due to space limitations and the ownership of land.

Then, about 20 000 years ago, an Ice Age overcame the entire earth. This meant that the planet underwent a long-term period of cold temperatures over most of its surface. In places like North America and Eurasia, giant ice sheets covered enormous proportions of the land, making it impossible to farm and, sometimes, even live in these areas. This final Ice Age lasted for about 9 500 years. It forced most of the populations to migrate to the highlands, where they would be relatively protected from the ice sheets. Again, these civilisations had to adapt their farming methods, and change their diet, social habits, clothing and migratory patterns. This forced an evolution to a certain extent. Body hair was necessary to keep people warm, their skin lightened due to a lack of the harsh rays of the sun that they experienced during the mega-droughts, etc…

When this Ice Age came to an end 10 500 years ago, areas like the Sahara were left fertile and healthy. This made it and the other areas like it the ideal spots in which to settle as ancient man began to descend from the highlands. Animals and plants thrived in this environment, which made it very desirable in the eyes of mankind. The abundance of food, water and sunshine again changed the habits and physical structures of our earliest forefathers.

These conditions lasted for some time, but the Sahara in particular continued to experience fluctuations between humid and dry conditions. These eventually left the entire area unable to yield crops or sustain life for any extended period of time. Today, it remains a large stretch of desert. Then, approximately 2500 years ago, the group of people who had made their home in the Sahara began to follow the direction of the Nile River, which held promise of a rich water supply. The arid conditions of the Sahara and its surrounds continue to the present day.

Africa has, since prehistoric times, proven to be a place of fascination, life and evolution. Changes in the climate were often dramatic, and these were, to a great extent, responsible for determining the ancient civilisations that inhabited this vast continent. It is no wonder that many researchers and scientists maintain that Africa is the Cradle of Mankind, and research continues to yield fascinating evidence of this theory.